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Lupus

5 min read
What is lupus?
Lupus is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
There are several kinds of lupus

- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common type. It can be mild or severe, and can affect many parts of the body.
- Discoid lupus causes a red rash that doesn't go away
- Subacute cutaneous lupus causes sores after being out in the sun
- Drug-induced lupus is caused by certain medicines. It usually goes away when you stop taking the medicine.
- Neonatal lupus, which is rare, affects newborns. It is probably caused by certain antibodies from the mother.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
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What causes lupus?
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
The cause of lupus is not known.
Who is at risk for lupus?
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Anyone can get lupus, but women are most at risk. Lupus is two to three times more common in African American women than in Caucasian women. It's also more common in Hispanic, Asian, and Native American women. African American and Hispanic women are more likely to have severe forms of lupus.
What are the symptoms of lupus?
Lupus can have many symptoms, and they differ from person to person. Some of the more common ones are

- Pain or swelling in joints
- Muscle pain
- Fever with no known cause
- Red rashes, most often on the face (also called the "butterfly rash")
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
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- Chest pain when taking a deep breath
- Hair loss
- Pale or purple fingers or toes
- Sensitivity to the sun
- Swelling in legs or around eyes
- Mouth ulcers
- Swollen glands
- Feeling very tired
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Symptoms may come and go. When you are having symptoms, it is called a flare.  Flares can range from mild to severe. New symptoms may appear at any time.
How is lupus diagnosed?
There is no single test to diagnose lupus, and it's often mistaken for other diseases. So it may take months or years for a doctor to diagnose it.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Your doctor may use many tools to make a diagnosis:

- Medical history
- Complete exam
- Blood tests
- Skin biopsy (looking at skin samples under a microscope)
- Kidney biopsy (looking at tissue from your kidney under a microscope)
What are the treatments for lupus?
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
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There is no cure for lupus, but medicines and lifestyle changes can help control it.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
People with lupus often need to see different doctors. You will have a primary care doctor and a rheumatologist (a doctor who specializes in the diseases of joints and muscles). Which other specialists you see depends on how lupus affects your body. For example, if lupus damages your heart or blood vessels, you would see a cardiologist.
Your primary care doctor should coordinate care between your different health care providers and treat other problems as they come up. Your doctor will develop a treatment plan to fit your needs. You and your doctor should review the plan often to be sure it is working. You should report new symptoms to your doctor right away so that your treatment plan can be changed if needed.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
The goals of the treatment plan are to

- Prevent flares
- Treat flares when they occur
- Reduce organ damage and other problems
Treatments may include drugs to

- Reduce swelling and pain
- Prevent or reduce flares
- Help the immune system
- Reduce or prevent damage to joints
- Balance the hormones
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
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Besides taking medicines for lupus, you may need to take medicines for problems that are related to lupus such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or infection.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Alternative treatments are those that are not part of standard treatment. At this time, no research shows that alternative medicine can treat lupus. Some alternative or complementary approaches may help you cope or reduce some of the stress associated with living with a chronic illness. You should talk to your doctor before trying any alternative treatments.
How can I cope with lupus?
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
It is important to take an active role in your treatment. It helps to learn more about lupus - being able to spot the warning signs of a flare can help you prevent the flare or make the symptoms less severe.
It is also important to find ways to cope with the stress of having lupus. Exercising and finding ways to relax may make it easier for you to cope. A good support system can also help.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases